- deals with human problems in human way
- adishankara (8th AD) wrote a commentary
- people know more about it than what it is about
- Bhagavan Sri Krishna also
says in the Gita (7.3) “Among thousands of men , one by chance aspires for
perfection; even among those successful aspirants only one by chance knows
Me in essence.”
- Gita means song or poem and bhagavat means divine
- It finds a place in the Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata. It comprises of 18 chapters spread out in 700 verses.
- author is Veda Vyasa, the
compiler of the Mahabharata who wrote this epic through the hands of the Lord
of Wisdom, Sri Ganesha.
- The content of the Gita is the conversation between Lord Krishna and Arjuna taking place on the battlefield of Kurukshetra before the start of the war between the two clans of brothers - the Kauravas and the Pandavas.
- Responding to Arjuna's confusion and moral dilemma about fighting his own cousins, Bhagavan Krishna explains to Arjuna his duties as a warrior and prince and elaborates on different Vedantic concepts.
- It is considered as a concise, practical, self-contained guide to play the game of life. During the discourse, Krishna reveals His identity as the Supreme Being (Svayam Bhagavan), blessing Arjuna with an awe-inspiring vision of His divine universal form.
Six Points of Gita:
1. Upakarma or upasamhara - from delusion to clarity
2. Abhayasa - repetition and emphasis - K to A, not to grieve and put forward reasons from several angles.
3. Apurvata - uniqueness
4. Phalam - fruit or result
5. Arthavada - positive praise of the subject
6. upapatti - illustration and reasoning - uses "tasmat" means therefore, etc.
Overview of the Gita:
The entire Bhagavad Gita can be divided into five topics
1. Identifying the problem (covered in the 1st and the starting portions of the 2nd chapters of the Gita).
2. Finding a solution (covered in the major portion of the 2nd chapter and reiterated in the 7th, 9th and 13th chapters.
3. Implementing the solution (This theme is dealt with in the 3rd, 5th, 12th and 18th chapters).
4. Understanding the values of life (stated in many places in the Gita and particularly in the 16th chapter) and
5. Achieving perfection (elaborated in the 2nd, 5th, and 14th chapters).
Main Philosophical Subjects in Gita:
The main philosophical subject matter of the Bhagavad Gita is the explanation of five basic concepts.
Jiva, the individual soul or the living being
Jagat, the universe he lives in or nature or matter
Jagadishvara, the creator of the universe or the Supreme Controller and the relationship between Jiva, Jagat and Jagadishvara.
Dharma (Duty in accordance with Divine law)
Chapter 1 - Arjuna Vishaada Yogah: Yoga of the Despondency of Arjuna
dharmakshetre kurukshetre samavetaa yuyutsavah
maamakaah paandavaashchaiva kimakurvata sanjaya // 1.1 //
What did the sons of Pandu and also my people do when they assembled together on the holy field of Kurukshetra, eager to fight, O Sanjaya?
drishtwaa tu paandavaaneekam vyoodham duryodhanastadaa
aachaaryam upasamgamya raajaa vachanam abraveet // 1.2 //
Having seen the army of Pandavas drawn up in battle array, King Duryodhana then approached his teacher, Drona, and spoke these words.
pashyaitaam paanduputraanaam aacharya mahateem chamoom
vyoodhaam drupadaputrena tava shishyena dheemataa // 1.3 //
Behold O Teacher, this mighty army of the sons of Pandu, arrayed by the son of Drupada, your wise disciple.
atra shooraa maheshwaasaa bheemaarjunasamaa yudhi
yuyudhaano viraatashcha drupadashcha mahaarathah // 1.4 //
Here are heroes, mighty archers, equal in battle to Bhima and Arjuna, Yuyudhana, Virata and Drupada, the great chariot warrior.
dhrishtaketush chekitaanah kaashiraajascha veeryavan
purujit kuntibhojashcha shaibhyashcha narapungavah // 1.5 //
Dhrishtaketu, Chekitana and the valiant king of Kasi, Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Saibya, the best among men.
yudhaamanyushcha vikraanta uttamaujaashcha veeryavan
saubhadro draupadeyaashcha sarva eva mahaarathaah // 1.6 //
The courageous Yudhamanyu, the brave Uttamauja, Saubhadra and the sons of Draupadi - all great chariot-warriors.
asmaakam tu vishishtaa ye taan nibodha dwijottama
naayakaa mama sainyasya samjnaartham taan braveemi te // 1.7 //
Know also, O the best among the twice born, the names of those who are most
distinguished amongst ourselves, the leaders of my army. These I relate to you
for your information.
bhavaan bheeshmashcha karnashcha kripashcha samitinjayah
ashwatthaamaa vikarnashcha saumadattis tathaiva cha // 1.8 //
Yourself and Bhishma and Karna and Kripa, the victorious in war, Aswatthama and Vikarna and Jayadratha, the son of Somadatta.
anye cha bahavah shooraa madarthe tyaktajeevitaah
naanaashastrapraharanaah sarve yuddhavishaaradaah // 1.9 //
And many other heroes also, well-skilled in warfare and armed with many kinds of weapons are here; ready to lay down their lives for my sake.
aparyaaptam tad asmaakam balam bheeshmaabhirakshitam
paryaaptam twidam eteshaam balam bheemaabhirakshitam // 1.10 //
Our army defended by Bhishma is insufficient but the army of theirs defended by
Bhima is sufficient.
ayaneshu cha sarveshu yathaabhaagam avasthitaah
bheeshmam evaabhirakshantu bhavantah sarva eva hi // 1.11 //
Now all of you being stationed in your respective positions in the divisions of the
army guard Bhishma alone by all means.
TO BE CONTINUED......