Why in the courts of law in India does one take the oath by putting one’s hand on the Gita and not on the other scriptures like the Ramayana?
Chapter 2 - Saankhya Yogah: Yoga of Knowledge [Continued]
NO WISDOM FOR THE WORLDLY MINDED
yaam imaam pushpitaam vaacham pravadantyavipashchitah
vedavaadarataah paartha naanyad asteeti vaadinah // 2.42 //
kaamaatmaanah swargaparaa janmakarmaphalaprdaam
kriyaavisheshabahulaam bhogaishwaryagatim prati // 2.43 //
bhogaishwarya prasaktaanaam tayaapahritachetasaam
vyavasaayaatmika buddhih samaadhau na vidheeyate // 2.44 //
Arjuna, those who are obsessed by desires, who look upon heaven as the supreme goal and argue that there is nothing beyond heaven and pleasures and who are devoted to the letter of the Vedas are unwise. They make this type of flowery speeches recommending many acts of various kinds, for the attainment of pleasure and prosperity and with rebirth as their motive. Thos whose minds are carried away by such flowery words (who are attracted by and attached to pleasures and prosperity) are not well-established in the Self (in concentration).
PRACTICE OF VEDIC RITES DOES NOT LEAD TO LIBERATION
traigunyavishayaa vedaa nistraigunyo bhavaarjuna
nirdwandwo nityasatwastho niryogakshema aatmavaan // 2.45 //
The Vedas deal with three attributes (of nature); you be above these three attributes, O Arjuna. Free yourself from the pairs of opposites and ever remain in the quality of sattwa (goodness), freed from all thoughts of acquisition (of what you lack) and preservation (of what you have) and be established in the Self.
WHAT IS THE USE OF THE VEDAS?
yaavaanartha udapaane sarvatah samplutodake
taavaan sarveshu vedeshu braahmanasya vijaanatah // 2.46 //
To the Brahmana who has known the Self, all the Vedas are of as much use as is a reservoir of water in a place where there is a flood.
WORK WITHOUT CONCERN FOR THE RESULTS
karmanyevaadhikaaraste maa phaleshu kadaachana
maa karmaphalahetur bhoor maa te sango'stwakarmani // 2.47 //
Your right is to work only, but never to claim its fruits. Do not become an instrument for making your actions yield fruit, nor let your attachment be to inaction.
This verse gives the following four guidelines to a Karma Yogin:
1. This concern is with the action alone.
2. he has no concern with the results.
3. he should not become a tool for gaining a desired result of a given action since such desired result oriented action produces bondage
4. the above mentioned ideas should not be taken to mean advocating inaction.
IF A MAN HAS TO WORK WITHOUT ANY DESIRE FOR ITS RESULTS, HOW, THEN, SHOULD HE GO ABOUT IT?
yogasthah kuru karmani sangam tyaktwaa dhananjaya
siddhyasiddhyoh samo bhootwaa samatwam yoga uchyate // 2.48 //
Perform your actions, O Dhananjaya (Arjuna), being established in or integrated with Yoga, abandoning attachment and remaining even-minded both in success and failure. This Evenness of mind is called Yoga.
AN ACTION PERFORMED WITH A VIEW TO THE RESULT IS OF VERY INFERIOR VALUE.
doorena hyavaram karma buddhiyogaad dhananjaya
buddhau sharanamanwiccha kripanaah phalahetavah // 2.49 //
O Arjuna, far inferior, indeed, is mere action, to action performed with evenness of mind. Seek refuge in this evenness. Wretched are they who work for results.
RESULT OF PERFORMING ONE’S DUTY WITH EVENNESS OF MIND.
buddhiyukto jahaateeha ubhe sukrita dushkrite
tasmaad yogaaya yujyaswa yogah karmasu kaushalam // 2.50 //
Endowed with evenness of mind, one casts off in this very life both good and evil deeds. Therefore, devote yourself to Yoga (of equanimity); skill in action lies in the practice of this Yoga.
HOW DOES ACTION LEAD TO LIBERATION?
karmajam buddhiyuktaa hi phalam tyaktwaa maneeshinah
janmabandha vinirmuktaah padam gacchantyanaamayam // 2.51 //
The wise, possessed of equanimity, having abandoned the fruits of their actions and being freed from the fetters of birth, attain the state that is beyond all evil (reaches the blissful supreme state).
WHEN DOES ONE ATTAIN THE WISDOM THAT IS THE RESULT OF THE PURITY OF MIND INDUCED BY KARMAYOGA?
yadaa te mohakalilam buddhir vyatitarishyati
tadaa gantaasi nirvedam shrotavyasya shrutasya cha // 2.52 //
When your mind crosses beyond the mire of delusion, then you shall achieve indifference regarding things already heard and things yet to be heard (about enjoyments of this world or the next).
WHEN DOES ONE ATTAIN THE TRUE YOGA OR KNOWLEDGE OF THE SUPREME TRUTH?
shrutivipratipannaa te yadaa sthaasyati nishchalaa
samaadhaavachalaa buddhistadaa yogam avaapsyasi // 2.53 //
When your mind, now perplexed by what you have heard, stands firm and steady in the Self, then you will have attained Yoga or Self-Realization.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A PERSON WHO HAS ATTAINED WISDOM THROUGH SAMADHI.
sthitaprajnasya kaa bhaashaa samaadhisthasya keshava
sthitadheeh kim prabhaasheta kimaaseeta vrajeta kim // 2.54 //
O Keshava, what is the description of him who has steady wisdom and is merged in the super conscious state (Samadhi)? How does one of steady wisdom speak? How does he sit? How does he walk?
The two questions asked by Arjuna are:
1. How is a man of steady wisdom described by others?
2. How does the influence of wisdom manifest itself in his actions in the outer world when he comes out of Samadhi?
The answers to these questions occupy the rest of this Chapter. They comprise of the characteristic attributes of a man of steady wisdom and also the means of attaining such wisdom. These attributes apply equally to Jnana Yogis and Karma Yogis.
Arjuna’s questions simply mean:
- How does a wise person respond to the daily situations in life?
- What are the distinguishing marks or characteristics of a wise person?
These verses are of extraordinary significance for two reasons - they tell precisely what wisdom means in practical every day life - with that knowledge, one can help oneself, to uplift oneself spiritually by understanding and appreciating these verses and by meditation and contemplation on the content of these verses. For these reasons these 18 verses are the best known and the most often recited verses in the entire Bhagavad Gita. Therefore, let us now try to understand these verses as well as we can.
sri bhagavaan uvaacha
prajahaati yadaa kaamaan sarvaan paartha manogataan
atmanyevaatmanaa tushtah sthitaprajnastadochyate // 2.55 //
Sri Bhagavan said
O Partha, when a man completely casts off all the desires of the mind, his Self finding satisfaction in itself alone, then he is called a man of steady wisdom.
duhkheshwanudwignamanaah sukheshu vigatasprihah
veetaraagabhayakrodhah sthitadheer munir uchyate // 2.56 //
He whose mind is not shaken by adversity, who does not hanker after pleasures and who is free from attachment, fear and anger, is called a sage of steady
Verses 56 - 58 answer the second part of Arjuna's question as to the conduct of the man of steady wisdom.
yah sarvatraanabhisnehas tattat praapya shubhaashubham
naabhinandati na dweshti tasya prajnaa pratishthitaa // 2.57 //
He who is not attached to anything, who neither rejoices nor is, vexed when he obtains good or evil - his wisdom is firmly fixed.
The ideas expressed in the previous verses are repeated. The enlightened sage or the Perfected one has evenness of mind. He does not rejoice in pleasure nor is he averse to any pain. He has no attachment to any worldly object. He does
not get disturbed when praised or censured. He is always identified with the Self. This verse is in reply to Arjuna’s query about the speech of a perfect master. His speech has for its background the mental state as described
yadaa samharate chaayam koormo'ngaaneeva sarvashah
indriyaaneendriyaarthebhyas tasya prajnaa pratishthitaa // 2.58 //
When like the tortoise which withdraws its limbs on all sides, he withdraws his senses from the sense objects, then his wisdom becomes steady.
DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE SENSE-CONTROL BY AN ORDINARY PERSON AND A REALIZED SOUL
vishayaa vinivartante niraahaarasya dehinah
rasavarjam raso'pyasya param drishtwaa nivartate // 2.59 //
The objects of the senses fall away from the abstinent man but not the taste for them. But even the taste falls away when the Supreme is seen.
Sri Krishna is explaining the difference between outer abstention and inner renunciation. We may reject the object but the desire for it may remain. Even the desire is lost when the Supreme is seen. The control should be both at the body and mental levels.
WHAT IS THE HARM IF ATTACHMENT DOES NOT DISAPPEAR?
yatato hyapi kaunteya purushasya vipashchitah
indriyaani pramaatheeni haranti prasabham manah // 2.60 //
The turbulent senses, O son of Kunti, do violently carry away the mind even of a wise man though he may be striving to control them.
SENSE CONTROL IS A MEANS OF GOD-REALIZATION FOR A PERSON OF STABLE MIND
taani sarvaani samyamya yukta aaseeta matparah
vashe hi yasyendriyaani tasya prajnaa pratishthitaa // 2.61 //
Having restrained all the senses he should sit steadfast, intent on Me; his wisdom is steady whose senses are under control.
THE VERY THOUGHT OF SENSE-OBJECTS CAUSES FUTURE MISFORTUNE
dhyaayato vishayaan pumsah sangas teshoopajaayate
sangaat sanjaayate kaamah kaamaat krodho'bhijaayate// 2.62 //
When a man thinks of objects, attachment for them arises; from attachment desire is born; from desire arises anger.
krodhaad bhavati sammohah sammohaat smriti vibhramah
smritibhramshaad buddhinaasho buddhinaashaat pranashyati // 2.63 //
From anger comes delusion, from delusion the loss of memory, from the loss of memory the destruction of intelligence; from the destruction of intelligence he perishes.
The movement from desire to destruction can be illustrated as under:
Brooding on the objects of senses ►attachment ►desire ►anger ►delusion
►loss of memory ►loss of reason ►utter ruin.
HOW A PERSON OF STABLE MIND MOVES AMONG SENSE OBJECTS AND WHAT IS HIS REWARD?
raagadwesha viyuktaistu vishayaanindriyaishcharan
aatmavashyair vidheyaatmaa prasaadamadhigacchati // 2.64 //
But the self-controlled man, moving among objects with his senses under restraint and free from both attraction and repulsion, attains peace.
This verse answers Arjuna's question as to how does the man of steady wisdom move about?
WHAT DOES ONE ATTAIN THROUGH SERENITY?
prasaade sarvaduhkhaanaam haanirasyopajaayate
prasannachetaso hyaashu buddhih paryavatishthate// 2.65 //
In that serenity there is an end of all sorrow; for the intelligence of the man of serene mind soon becomes steady.
PEACE OF MIND ALONE LEADS TO HAPPINESS
naasti buddhir ayuktasya na chaayuktasya bhaavanaa
na chaabhaavayatah shaantir ashaantasya kutah sukham // 2.66 //
The man whose mind is not under his control has no Self-Knowledge and to the unsteady no meditation is possible and to the unmeditative there can be no peace and to the man who has no peace how can there be any happiness?
TO BE CONTINUED......