How such a long discourse like the Gita took place in the midst of two impatient armies ready to fight it out?
Chapter 2 - Saankhya Yogah: Yoga of Knowledge (Continued...)
na hi prapashyaami mamaapanudyaad
yacchokam ucchoshanam indriyaanaam
avaapya bhoomaav asapatnam riddham
raajyam suraanaam api chaadhipatyam // 2.8 //
For, even after obtaining an undisputed sovereignty and an affluent kingdom on this earth and lordship over the Gods, I do not see any means of driving away this grief which is drying up my senses.
evam uktwaa hrishikesham gudakeshah parantapah
na yotsya iti govindam uktwaa tooshneem babhoova ha // 2.9 //
Having thus spoken to Hrishikesa (Krishna), Arjuna the destroyer of foes (Parantapa), said to Govinda (Krishna) I will not fight and became silent.
tam uvaacha hrisheekeshah prahasanniva bhaarata
senayor ubhayor madhye visheedantam idam vachah // 2.10 //
O descendent of Bharata (Dhritarashtra), then Krishna, as if smiling, spoke these words to him (Arjuna) thus depressed in the midst of the two armies.
THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE SELF AND THE BODY:
WE SHOULD NOT GRIEVE FOR WHAT IS IMPERISHABLE.
sri bhagavaan uvaacha
ashochyaan anvashochastwam prajnaavaadaamshcha bhaashase
gataasoon agataasoomshcha naanushochanti panditaah // 2.11 //
Sri Bhagavan said
You grieve for those who are not to be grieved for; and yet you speak words of wisdom! The learned do not grieve for the departed and those who have not departed.
na twevaaham jaatu naasam na twam neme janaadhipaah
na chaiva na bhavishyaamah sarve vayam atah param // 2.12 //
It is not that I did not exist before, nor you nor these kings. Nor is it that we shall cease to exist in future.
IMMUTABLE CHARACTER OF THE SOUL
dehino'smin yathaa dehe kaumaaram yauvanam jaraa
tathaa dehaantara praaptir dheeras tatra na mhuhyati // 2.13 //
Just as in this body the embodied self passes into childhood, youth and old age, so also does he pass into another body; calm man does not grieve at it.
maatraa sparshaastu kaunteya sheetoshna sukha dukhadaah
agamaapaayinonityaas taamstitikshaswa bhaarata // 2.14 //
The contacts of the senses with objects, O son of Kunti, which cause heat and cold, pleasure and pain have a beginning and an end; they are impermanent ; endure them bravely, O descendent of Bharata (Arjuna).
WHAT GOOD COMES TO HIM WHO ENDURES THESE DESIRABLE AND UNDESIRABLE SITUATIONS?
yam hi na vyathayantyete purusham purusharshabha
samaduhkha sukham dheeram so’mritatwaaya kalpate // 2.15 //
That calm man who remains unchanged in pain and pleasure, whom these cannot disturb, alone is able, O greatest amongst men, to attain immortality.
HOW THE SOUL IS ETERNAL AND HOW THE CONTACTS WITH SENSORY OBJECTS ARE TRANSITORY? THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE REAL AND THE UNREAL. ADDITIONAL EXPLANATIONS.
naasato vidyate bhaavo naabhaavo vidyate satah
ubhayorapi drishto’ntastwanayos tattwadarshibhih // 2.16 //
The unreal has no existence. The Real never ceases to be (never ceases to exist). Men possessed of the knowledge of the Truth fully know both these.
WHAT THEN IS THAT WHICH IS ALWAYS REAL ?
avinaashi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idam tatam
vinaasham avyayasyaasya na kaschit kartum arhati // 2.17 //
Know `That' to be indestructible, by whom all this is pervaded.
None can cause the destruction of That, the Imperishable.
WHAT IS THE UNREAL WHOSE NATURE IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE?
antavanta ime dehaa nityasyoktaah shareerinah
anaashino'prameyasya tasmaad yudhyaswa bhaarata // 2.18 //
Only the bodies, of which this eternal, imperishable, and incomprehensible Self is the indweller, are said to have an end. Therefore, O descendent of Bharata (Arjuna) fight.
IT IS IGNORANCE TO THINK THAT THE SOUL IS CAPABLE OF KILLING OR CAN BE KILLED.
ya enam vetti hantaaram yashchainam manyate hatam
ubhau tau na vijaaneeto naayam hanti na hanyate // 2.19 //
He who looks on the Self to be the slayer and he who looks on the Self as the slain - neither of them apprehends correctly. The Self neither slays nor is slain.
HOW IS THE SELF IMMUTABLE AND IMMORTAL?
na jaayate mriyate vaa kadaachin naayam
bhootwaa bhavitaa vaa na bhooyah
ajo nityah shaashwato'yam puraano
na hanyate hanyamaane shareere // 2.20 //
He is never born nor does He ever die; after having been, He again does not cease to be. Unborn, eternal, changeless and ancient. He is not killed when the body is killed.
WHY THE SOUL DOES NOT KILL ANYBODY?
vedaavinaashinam nityam ya enam ajam avyayam katham
sa purushah paartha kam ghaatayati hanti kam // 2.21 //
Whosoever knows Him to be indestructible, eternal, unborn and immutable, how can that man slay O Arjuna, or cause another to slay?
ILLUSTRATION REGARDING INDESTRUCTIBILITY OF THE SOUL.
vaasaamsi jeernaani yathaa vihaaya
navaani grihnaati naro'paraani
tathaa shareeraani vihaaya jeernaa-
-nyanyaani samyaati navaani dehee // 2.22 //
Just as a man casts off his worn-out clothes and puts on new ones, so also the
embodied Self casts off Its worn out bodies and enters that are new.
nainam chhindanti shastraani nainam dahati paavakah
na chainam kledayantyaapo na shoshayati maarutah // 2.23 //
Weapons cannot cut It, nor can fire burn It; water cannot wet It, nor can wind dry
acchedyo'yam adaahyo'yam akledyo'shoshya eva cha nityah
sarvagatah sthaanur achalo'yam sanaatanah // 2.24 //
This Self cannot be cut, burnt, wetted or dried up. It is eternal, all-pervading,
stable, ancient and immovable.
avyakto'yam achintyo'yam avikaaryo'yam uchyate
tasmaad evam viditwainam naanushochitum arhasi // 2.25 //
The Self is unmanifest, unthinkable and unchangeable. Therefore, knowing it to be as such, you should not grieve.
TO BE CONTINUED......